Research Studies on Innovative MRI Techniques/AI


  • Jakimovski D, Silva D, Bergsland N, Dwyer MG, Weinstock-Guttman D, Benedict RHB, Riolo J, Dwyer MG, Zivadinov R on behalf of the DeepGRAI Registry Study group. Therapy effect on AI-derived thalamic atrophy using clinical routine MRI protocol: A longitudinal, multi-center, propensity-matched multiple sclerosis study. Mult Scler Rel Dis 2023:74:104708. [Open Article]
  • Reeves JA, Weinstock Z, Zivadinov R, Dwyer MG, Bergsland N, Salman F, Schweser F, Weinstock-Guttman B, Benedict RHB, Jakimovski D.P Paramagnetic rim lesions are associated with greater incidence of relapse and worse cognitive recovery following relapse. Mult Scler 2023;29(8):1033-1038. [Open Article]
  • Bergsland N, Dwyer MG, Jakimovski D, Tavazzi E, Benedict RH, Weinstock-Guttman B, Zivadinov R. Choroid plexus inflammation in multiple sclerosis is related to greater cerebral atrophy and clinical disability progression. A 5-year longitudinal study. Neurology 2023;100(9):e911-e920. [Open Article]


  • Zivadinov R, Bergsland N, Jakimovski D, Weinstock-Guttman D, Benedict RH, Riolo J, Silva D,
    Dwyer MG, on behalf of the DeepGRAI Registry Study group. Thalamic atrophy measured by
    artificial intelligence in a multi-center clinical routine real-word study is associated with disability
    progression. JNNP 2022;doi:10.1136/jnnp-2022-329333. [Open Article]
  • Jakimovski D, Zivadinov R, Bergsland N, Oh J, Martin M, Shinohara RT, Bakshi R, Calabresi PA, Papinutto N, Pelletier D, Dwyer MG on behalf of North American Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis (NAIMS) (2022). Multi-site reproducibility of lateral ventricular volume using the NAIMS cooperative pilot dataset. J Neuroimaging;doi:10.1111/jon.12998. [Open article]


  • Dwyer M, Lyman C, Ferrari H, Bergsland N, Fuchs TA, Jakimovski D, Schweser F, Weinstock-Guttmann B, Benedict RH, Riolo J, Silva D. DeepGRAI (Deep Gray Rating via Artificial Intelligence): Fast, feasible, and clinically relevant thalamic atrophy measurement on clinical quality T2-FLAIR MRI in multiple sclerosis. NeuroImage: Clinical. 2021 Jan 1;30:102652 [Open article]
  • Hildesheim FE, Ramasamy DP, Bergsland N, Jakimovski D, Dwyer MG, Hojnacki D, Lizarraga AA, Kolb C, Eckert S, Weinstock-Guttman B, Zivadinov R (2020) Leptomeningeal, dura mater and meningeal vessel wall enhancements in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler Relat Disord 47:102653 [Open Article]


  • Hildesheim FE, Ramasamy DP, Bergsland N, et al. Leptomeningeal, Dura Mater and Meningeal Vessel Wall Enhancements in Multiple Sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders 2020. [Open article]
  • Zivadinov R, Bergsland N, Millman M, Jakimovski D, Ramasamy D, Weinstock-Guttman B, Zarif M, Freedman M, Hunter S, Cohan S, Edwards K, Steingo B, Zabad R, Baker M, Belkin M, Repovic P, Mazhari A, Chase A, Silversteen J, Smith D, Negroski D, Feinberg M, Newman S, Pardo G, Riolo J, Silva D, Deep GRAI Study Group. (2020) Feasibility of thalamic atrophy measurement in clinical routine using artificial intelligence: Results from multi-center, longitudinal study in RRMS patients. 8th Joint ACTRIMS-ECTRIMS Meeting MS Virtual 2020:P0577
  • Dwyer M, Ramasamy D, Jaffe K, Margolis P, Zivadinov R (2020) Inclusion of very small cerebral lesions in quantitative embolic protection study endpoints may obscure clinical relevance. TCT Connect, 2020, J Am Coll Cardiol 76:B207


  • Genovese AV, Hagemeier J, Bergsland N, Jakimovski D, Dwyer MG, Ramasamy DP, Lizarraga AA, Hojnacki D, Kolb C, Weinstock-Guttman B and Zivadinov R (2019). "Atrophied Brain T2 Lesion Volume at MRI Is Associated with Disability Progression and Conversion to Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis." Radiology 293(2): 424-433. [Open article]
  • Zivadinov R, Bergsland N, Hagemeier J, Ramasamy DP, Dwyer MG, Schweser F, Kolb C, Weinstock-Guttman B and Hojnacki D (2019). "Cumulative gadodiamide administration leads to brain gadolinium deposition in early MS." Neurology 93(6): e611-e623. [Open article]
  • Dwyer MG, Bergsland N, Ramasamy DP, Weinstock-Guttman B, Barnett MH, Wang C, Tomic D, Silva D and Zivadinov R (2019). "Salient Central Lesion Volume: A Standardized Novel Fully Automated Proxy for Brain FLAIR Lesion Volume in Multiple Sclerosis." J Neuroimaging 29(5): 615-623. [Open article]
  • Bergsland N, Ramasamy D, Tavazzi E, Hojnacki D, Weinstock-Guttman B and Zivadinov R (2019). "Leptomeningeal Contrast Enhancement Is Related to Focal Cortical Thinning in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: A Cross-Sectional MRI Study." AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 40(4): 620-625. [Open article]
  • Lin F, Zivadinov R, Hagemeier J, Weinstock-Guttman B, Vaughn C, Gandhi S, Jakimovski D, Hulst HE, Benedict RH, Bergsland N, Fuchs T and Dwyer MG (2019). "Altered nuclei-specific thalamic functional connectivity patterns in multiple sclerosis and their associations with fatigue and cognition." Mult Scler 25(9): 1243-1254. [Open article]
  • Uher T, Vaneckova M, Krasensky J, Sobisek L, Tyblova M, Volna J, Seidl Z, Bergsland N, Dwyer MG, Zivadinov R, De Stefano N, Sormani MP, Havrdova EK and Horakova D (2019). "Pathological cut-offs of global and regional brain volume loss in multiple sclerosis." Mult Scler 25(4): 541-553. [Open article]


  • Zivadinov R, Bergsland N and Dwyer MG (2018). "Atrophied brain lesion volume, a magnetic resonance imaging biomarker for monitoring neurodegenerative changes in multiple sclerosis." Quant Imaging Med Surg 8(10): 979-983. [Open article]
  • Fuchs TA, Carolus K, Benedict RHB, Bergsland N, Ramasamy D, Jakimovski D, Weinstock-Guttman B, Kuceyeski A, Zivadinov R and Dwyer MG (2018). "Impact of Focal White Matter Damage on Localized Subcortical Gray Matter Atrophy in Multiple Sclerosis: A 5-Year Study." AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 39(8): 1480-1486. [Open article]
  • Bergsland N, Schweser F, Dwyer MG, Weinstock-Guttman B, Benedict RHB and Zivadinov R (2018). "Thalamic white matter in multiple sclerosis: A combined diffusion-tensor imaging and quantitative susceptibility mapping study." Hum Brain Mapp 39(10): 4007-4017. [Open article]
  • Dwyer MG, Bergsland N, Ramasamy DP, Jakimovski D, Weinstock-Guttman B and Zivadinov R (2018). "Atrophied Brain Lesion Volume: A New Imaging Biomarker in Multiple Sclerosis." J Neuroimaging 28(5): 490-495. [Open article]
  • Dwyer MG, Hagemeier J, Bergsland N, Horakova D, Korn JR, Khan N, Uher T, Medin J, Silva D, Vaneckova M, Havrdova EK, Zivadinov R (2018) Establishing pathological cut-offs for lateral ventricular volume expansion rates. NeuroImage Clinical 18:494-501
  • Zivadinov R, Ramasamy DP, Hagemeier J, Kolb C, Bergsland N, Schweser F, Dwyer MG, Weinstock-Guttman B and Hojnacki D (2018). "Evaluation of Leptomeningeal Contrast Enhancement Using Pre-and Postcontrast Subtraction 3D-FLAIR Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis." AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 39(4): 642-647. [Open article]
  • Bergsland N, Horakova D, Dwyer MG, Uher T, Vaneckova M, Tyblova M, Seidl Z, Krasensky J, Havrdova E and Zivadinov R (2018). "Gray matter atrophy patterns in multiple sclerosis: A 10-year source-based morphometry study." Neuroimage Clin 17: 444-451. [Open article]


  • Dwyer MG, Silva D, Bergsland N, Horakova D, Ramasamy D, Durfee J, Vaneckova M, Havrdova E and Zivadinov R (2017). "Neurological software tool for reliable atrophy measurement (NeuroSTREAM) of the lateral ventricles on clinical-quality T2-FLAIR MRI scans in multiple sclerosis." Neuroimage Clin 15: 769-779. [Open article]
  • Feng X, Deistung A, Dwyer MG, Hagemeier J, Polak P, Lebenberg J, Frouin F, Zivadinov R, Reichenbach JR and Schweser F (2017). "An improved FSL-FIRST pipeline for subcortical gray matter segmentation to study abnormal brain anatomy using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM)." Magn Reson Imaging 39: 110-122. [Open article]
  • Zivadinov R, Ramasamy DP, Vaneckova M, Gandhi S, Chandra A, Hagemeier J, Bergsland N, Polak P, Benedict RH, Hojnacki D and Weinstock-Guttman B (2017). "Leptomeningeal contrast enhancement is associated with progression of cortical atrophy in MS: A retrospective, pilot, observational longitudinal study." Mult Scler 23(10): 1336-1345. [Open article]


  • Sati P, Oh J, Constable RT, Evangelou N, Guttmann CR, Henry RG, Klawiter EC, Mainero C, Massacesi L, McFarland H, Nelson F, Ontaneda D, Rauscher A, Rooney WD, Samaraweera AP, Shinohara RT, Sobel RA, Solomon AJ, Treaba CA, Wuerfel J, Zivadinov R, Sicotte NL, Pelletier D, Reich DS and Cooperative N (2016). "The central vein sign and its clinical evaluation for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis: a consensus statement from the North American Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis Cooperative." Nat Rev Neurol 12(12): 714-722. [Open article]
  • Motl RW, Zivadinov R, Bergsland N and Benedict RH (2016). "Thalamus volume and ambulation in multiple sclerosis: a cross-sectional study." Neurodegener Dis Manag 6(1): 23-29. [Open article]
  • Modica CM, Bergsland N, Dwyer MG, Ramasamy DP, Carl E, Zivadinov R and Benedict RH (2016). "Cognitive reserve moderates the impact of subcortical gray matter atrophy on neuropsychological status in multiple sclerosis." Mult Scler 22(1): 36-42. [Open article]


  • Cesar B, Dwyer MG, Shucard JL, Polak P, Bergsland N, Benedict RH, Weinstock-Guttman B, Shucard DW and Zivadinov R (2015). "Cognitive and White Matter Tract Differences in MS and Diffuse Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus." AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 36(10): 1874-1883. [Open article]


  • Cappellani R, Bergsland N, Weinstock-Guttman B, Kennedy C, Carl E, Ramasamy DP, Hagemeier J, Dwyer MG, Patti F and Zivadinov R (2014). "Diffusion tensor MRI alterations of subcortical deep gray matter in clinically isolated syndrome." J Neurol Sci 338(1-2): 128-134. [Open article]
  • Cappellani R, Bergsland N, Weinstock-Guttman B, Kennedy C, Carl E, Ramasamy DP, Hagemeier J, Dwyer MG, Patti F and Zivadinov R (2014). "Subcortical deep gray matter pathology in patients with multiple sclerosis is associated with white matter lesion burden and atrophy but not with cortical atrophy: a diffusion tensor MRI study." AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 35(5): 912-919. [Open article]
  • Dwyer MG, Bergsland N and Zivadinov R (2014). "Improved longitudinal gray and white matter atrophy assessment via application of a 4-dimensional hidden Markov random field model." Neuroimage 90: 207-217. [Open article]
  • Gabelic T, Ramasamy DP, Weinstock-Guttman B, Hagemeier J, Kennedy C, Melia R, Hojnacki D, Ramanathan M and Zivadinov R (2014). "Prevalence of radiologically isolated syndrome and white matter signal abnormalities in healthy relatives of patients with multiple sclerosis." AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 35(1): 106-112. [Open article]
  • Barnett Y, Sutton IJ, Ghadiri M, Masters L, Zivadinov R and Barnett MH (2014). "Conventional and Advanced Imaging in Neuromyelitis Optica." AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 35(8): 1458-1466. [Open article]
  • Aliotta R, Cox JL, Donohue K, Weinstock-Guttman B, Yeh EA, Polak P, Dwyer MG, Zivadinov R (2014) Tract-based spatial statistics analysis of diffusion-tensor imaging data in pediatric- and adult-onset multiple sclerosis. Hum Brain Mapp 35:53-60


  • Wack DS, Dwyer MG, Bergsland N, Ramasamy D, Di Perri C, Ranza L, Hussein S, Magnano C, Seals K and Zivadinov R (2013). "Improved operator agreement and efficiency using the minimum area contour change method for delineation of hyperintense multiple sclerosis lesions on FLAIR MRI." BMC Med Imaging 13(1): 29. [Open article]
  • Zivadinov R, Havrdova E, Bergsland N, Tyblova M, Hagemeier J, Seidl Z, Dwyer MG, Vaneckova M, Krasensky J, Carl E, Kalincik T and Horakova D (2013). "Thalamic atrophy is associated with development of clinically definite multiple sclerosis." Radiology 268(3): 831-841. [Open article]


  • Wack DS, Dwyer MG, Bergsland N, Di Perri C, Ranza L, Hussein S, Ramasamy D, Poloni G and Zivadinov R (2012). "Improved assessment of multiple sclerosis lesion segmentation agreement via detection and outline error estimates." BMC Med Imaging 12: 17. [Open article]
  • Magnano C, Schirda C, Weinstock-Guttman B, Wack DS, Lindzen E, Hojnacki D, Bergsland N, Kennedy C, Belov P, Dwyer MG, Poloni GU, Beggs CB and Zivadinov R (2012). "Cine cerebrospinal fluid imaging in multiple sclerosis." J Magn Reson Imaging 36(4): 825-834. [Open article]
  • Livshits I, Hussein S, Kennedy C, Weinstock-Guttman B, Hojnacki D and Zivadinov R (2012). "Comparison of a 1.5T standard vs. 3T optimized protocols in multiple sclerosis patients." Minerva Med 103(2): 97-102. [Open article]
  • Polak P, Magnano C, Zivadinov R and Poloni G (2012). "3D FLAIRED: 3D fluid attenuated inversion recovery for enhanced detection of lesions in multiple sclerosis." Magn Reson Med 68(3): 874-881. [Open article]
  • Zivadinov R, Heininen-Brown M, Schirda CV, Poloni GU, Bergsland N, Magnano CR, Durfee J, Kennedy C, Carl E, Hagemeier J, Benedict RH, Weinstock-Guttman B and Dwyer MG (2012). "Abnormal subcortical deep-gray matter susceptibility-weighted imaging filtered phase measurements in patients with multiple sclerosis: a case-control study." Neuroimage 59(1): 331-339. [Open article]


  • Poloni G, Minagar A, Haacke EM and Zivadinov R (2011). "Recent developments in imaging of multiple sclerosis." Neurologist 17(4): 185-204. [Open article]
  • Antulov R, Carone DA, Bruce J, Yella V, Dwyer MG, Tjoa CW, Benedict RH and Zivadinov R (2011). "Regionally distinct white matter lesions do not contribute to regional gray matter atrophy in patients with multiple sclerosis." J Neuroimaging 21(3): 210-218. [Open article]


  • Yeh EA, Weinstock-Guttman B, Ramanathan M, Ramasamy DP, Willis L, Cox JL and Zivadinov R (2009). "Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of children and adults with paediatric-onset multiple sclerosis." Brain 132(Pt 12): 3392-3400. [Open article]
  • Pirko I and Zivadinov R (2009). "Transcranial sonography of deep gray nuclei: a new outcome measure in multiple sclerosis?" Neurology 73(13): 1006-1007. [Open article]
  • Dwyer M, Bergsland N, Hussein S, Durfee J, Wack D and Zivadinov R (2009). "A sensitive, noise-resistant method for identifying focal demyelination and remyelination in patients with multiple sclerosis via voxel-wise changes in magnetization transfer ratio." J Neurol Sci 282(1-2): 86-95. [Open article]
  • Di Perri C, Dwyer MG, Wack DS, Cox JL, Hashmi K, Saluste E, Hussein S, Schirda C, Stosic M, Durfee J, Poloni GU, Nayyar N, Bergamaschi R and Zivadinov R (2009). "Signal abnormalities on 1.5 and 3 Tesla brain MRI in multiple sclerosis patients and healthy controls. A morphological and spatial quantitative comparison study." Neuroimage 47(4): 1352-1362. [Open article]
  • Zivadinov R (2009). "Advanced magnetic resonance imaging metrics: implications for multiple sclerosis clinical trials." Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 31(1): 29-40. [Open article]


  • Dwyer MG, Bergsland N, Saluste E, Sharma J, Jaisani Z, Durfee J, Abdelrahman N, Minagar A, Hoque R, Munschauer FE, 3rd and Zivadinov R (2008). "Application of hidden Markov random field approach for quantification of perfusion/diffusion mismatch in acute ischemic stroke." Neurol Res 30(8): 827-834. [Open article]
  • Tjoa CW, Benedict RH, Dwyer MG, Carone DA and Zivadinov R (2008). "Regional specificity of magnetization transfer imaging in multiple sclerosis." J Neuroimaging 18(2): 130-136. [Open article]
  • Zivadinov R, Banas AC, Yella V, Abdelrahman N, Weinstock-Guttman B and Dwyer MG (2008). "Comparison of three different methods for measurement of cervical cord atrophy in multiple sclerosis." AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 29(2): 319-325. [Open article]


  • Zivadinov R (2007). "Can imaging techniques measure neuroprotection and remyelination in multiple sclerosis?" Neurology 68(22 Suppl 3): S72-82; discussion S91-76. [Open article]
  • Dolezal O, Dwyer MG, Horakova D, Havrdova E, Minagar A, Balachandran S, Bergsland N, Seidl Z, Vaneckova M, Fritz D, Krasensky J and Zivadinov R (2007). "Detection of cortical lesions is dependent on choice of slice thickness in patients with multiple sclerosis." Int Rev Neurobiol 79: 475-489. [Open article]
  • Benedict RH and Zivadinov R (2007). "Reliability and validity of neuropsychological screening and assessment strategies in MS." J Neurol 254 Suppl 2: II22-II25. [Open article]
  • Tavazzi E, Dwyer MG, Weinstock-Guttman B, Lema J, Bastianello S, Bergamaschi R, Cosi V, Benedict RH, Munschauer FE, 3rd and Zivadinov R (2007). "Quantitative diffusion weighted imaging measures in patients with multiple sclerosis." Neuroimage 36(3): 746-754. [Open article]


  • Fritz DA, Dwyer MG, Bagnato F, Watts KL, Bratina A, Zorzon M, Durastanti V, Locatelli L, Millefiorini E and Zivadinov R (2006). "Effect of MRI coregistration on serial short-term brain volume changes in multiple sclerosis." Neurol Res 28(3): 275-279. [Open article]
  • Sharma J, Zivadinov R, Jaisani Z, Fabiano AJ, Singh B, Horsfield MA, Bakshi R (2006) A magnetization transfer MRI study of deep gray matter involvement in multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimaging 16:302-310